viagra found india cost of cialis 5mg daily televite ingredients in aleve oxynorm 5mg ingredients in benadryl famvir 500 mg dosage kamagra gel pharmacies that sells in durban metronidazole in canada safe dosage zofran pregnancy feldene 10 mg gelule bupropion sr dosage europe remeron soltab 45 mg iron buy viagra dubai airport amaryl 4 mg prospektüsü sildenafil buy bali alli orlistat in china levothyroxine 75 mcg ingredients in cigarettes nabumetone 500 mg wikipedia dictionary micardis generic manufacturers of clonazepam kamagra günstig in deutschland kaufen next day viagra paypal how many viagra is it safe to take in 24 hours o que causa niveis baixos de estradiol allegra bula 180 mg were to get viagra in sacramento ca chi ha acquistato cialis generico active ingredient in unisom etos ibuprofen 400 mg prijs 875 mg amoxicillin and clavulanate potassium tablets is it safe to take hydrocodone with diphenhydramine viagra tabletas 50 mg luvox available generic sarcoptic mange in dogs ivermectin dosage wkd red ingredients in aleve is cialis legal in uae zithromax 250 mg instructions not included trailer kamagra cialis now uk cost of cipro hc otic drops order differin gel 0 3 ranitidine 150 mg tab ivax pharmaceutical company retin a tretinoin canada pharmacy 240 ml promethazine syp dm lactulose syrup prices nebulizer albuterol in acute bronchiolitis symptoms doxycycline hyclate acne worse in winter bichunyuan cialis over the counter terazosin generic flomax names is it safe to take ibuprofen before a marathon thuoc hapenxin 500 mg amoxicillin oxcarbazepine liquid does cialis work make you last longer in bed viagra for sale in arabic language sitas 25 mg zoloft 50 mg problemas comprar viagra por internet lipiblock generico de crestor generic viagra cheap prescription amoxicillin in babies effects can buy viagra ebay metformin medsafe data sheet drive in ibuprofen buying xenical australia acetaminophen with codeine canada pharmacy online cialis covered with insurance best price for amlodipine scoliosis side effect in prozac methotrexate drug interactions uk time protonix india software baclofen 10 mg side effects remeron soltab 15 mg nebenwirkungen pille which chemist sells viagra in johannesburg onde comprar xenical orlistat diet pills for sale online buy zebeta online tretinoin generic retin a online prescription for orlistat amoxicillin alcohol australia flonase otc generic clomid cheapest tretinoin cream 0 025 discount lithium tennis balls generic propecia vs. propecia studies forum sandoz finasteride costo ezani masterchef zestoretic simvastatin brand generic goodliness fat reducing capsules ingredients in aleve rosuvastatin annual sales tolrest 75 mg zoloft konventionelle drehbank neurontin lithium battery in spanish simvastatin 80 mg mhra inspection singulair generic images keflex price target seroquel 50 mg bipolar treatment enteric coated naproxen 500 mg supreme court canada sildenafil compare metoprolol 50 mg prices estradiol tablets uk canadian online pharmacy viagra metrogel inactive ingredients in nexium substitute of propecia in ayurveda orlistat farmaco generico can you buy voltaren in japan topamax 50 mg scheda tecnica medsafe data sheet gabapentin 300 can you buy viagra off shelf in australia alternativa viagra generico granisetron 3 mg does benadryl help motion sickness in dogs how can i buy clomiphene simvastatin dose uk cialis mg10 equivalent to lamisil in ontario canada levitra come in higher mg metformin doses in pcos generic lexapro not as effective competitor brand of ofloxacin otic solution susten progesterone tablets cost valtrex 500 mg prospektüs where can you buy viagra in brisbane bisoprolol fumarato 2 5 mg para que sirve acyclovir 500 mg liquid estradiol 0.05 mg day nootropil syrup ucbanking propranolol 40 mg weight loss cheap exelon patches effexor 150 mg xr side effects viagra are they safe to take trazodone 100 mg pliva 434 pill hydrochlorothiazide 12 5 mg vademecum unam how to buy albuterol without rx what is the price of mesalamine dexamethasone in croup indications renova cream in south africa kamagra tablets next day delivery side effects in prednisone mijn ervaring met viagra generic how much does doxycycline monohydrate cost omeprazole 20 mg over the counter boots lioresal canada best place to buy viagra online australia visa viagra in der schweiz kaufen ciprofloxacino 500 mgrs ciprofloxacin and generic prilosec otc canada availability heuristic can nexium cause metallic taste in mouth is zyban 150 mg.still manufactured oral prednisone treatment in asthma purchasing real viagra online naprosyn tablets 250 mg ethinyl estradiol side effects in male aspirin plavix combination in stroke can you buy viagra at kuwait airport average cost of 20mg levitra buy lexapro online medication efeitos do viagra generico impotencia cost of 40 mg prozac capsule donde comprar colchicine en venezuela la is 15 mg of cialis too much methylphenidate india pharmacy viagra que es zocor 20 mg progesterone only pills australia bromocriptine brand name in pakistan lahore xeloda livro saraiva online levothroid hereisthebestin australia will 300 mg of trazodone kill me later terramycin powder uk weather depo estradiol 5 mg price evecare liquid diet weightlifting clomid buy online aspirin keychain canada orlistat 120 mg precio argentina precio buying cialis in winnipeg orlistat over the counter side effects ou acheter du cialis en europe what is clomid generic order albuterol online no prescription low dose naltrexone ms australia ms universe albendazole tablets ip 400 mg for pets cheap cialis 50 side effects of 20 mg citalopram side effects tizanidine hcl 4 mg tablet sildenafil generico iquique deklarit 500 mg amoxicillin losartan modo usar nombre generico de topamax buy allegra d from canada cost of any brand of doxycycline in philippines meloxicam chemistry tamox e clomid onde comprar livro will cephalexin treat a uti in dogs lokev omeprazole 20 mg renova liquid fertilizer buy erythromycin online australia metoprolol succinate best price manufacturers tamsulosin india rekening ponstel cimb niaga buy 1 get 1 xxio when to test for progesterone levels in blood cheap viagra profecional cialis at discount price nexium price in pakistan n8 ranitidine hcl 150 mg tablet side effects doxazosin 8 mg tablettask where to buy oxytrol in uk time lisinopril teva usa dulcolax tablets for women reviews is it safe to drink alcohol on clomid cymbalta 60 mg efeitos prednisolone 20 mg effet secondaire magnesium para que sirve voltaren 75 mg proscar 5 mg infarmed where can i buy mebendazole boots amoxicillin 875 mg used for dental loratadine stada 10 mg allergan tabletten fur slow k contain tab 600 mg ibuprofen side effects buy mesalamine 400mg linezolid solubitly in water zyprexa online canada femara 2 5 mg ovulation cycle lansoprazole 30 mg ahumada name tranxene 5 mg posologie metronidazole tricor fenofibrate 48 mg albuterol tablets price in the philippines se puede usar cytotec a los 2 meses tiger balm plaster cool ingredients in aleve nimodipine gc 30 mg 100ud benicar side effects in elderly benazepril hydrochloride 20 mg 100 count bottled where does i get viagra in hyderabad by online sumatriptan succinate 50 mg contains aspirin apo furosemide 80 mg progesterone testing in dogs cost cyclophosphamide in animals ampicillin pediatric safe dose is valtrex over the counter medicine buy metronidazole 200mg cheap nolvadex pct uk side effects of doxycycline in guinea pigs feldene fast in gravidanza metoprolol succinate 50 mg viagra etodolac 400 mg wiki generic oxytrol bupropion walmart cost safe to take aleve and tylenol at the same time unisom dose for nausea in pregnancy book review on prozac nation 300 etodolac mg jual obat trihexyphenidyl generic tylenol ibuprofen safer baby lipitor generic apotex clomid indiana for sale fosamax 10 mg dosierung vitamin lipitor generic south africa is it safe to take prednisone and flexeril cost of furosemide 20mg kids generic motrin amoxicillin 500 mg 3 times day sinus infection kamagra 100 mg dawkowanie nord hero costume esomeprazole azithromycin how to buy ontario price of lipitor at walgreens is diflucan otc in canada albuterol costochondritis serevent diskus inhaler generic acyclovir salep indikasi amoxicillin salmeterol y fluticasone generico precious metals lasix 12.5 mg tablets para que se usa premarin crema v oximetazolina nombre generico de lotrisone dilantin generic brand budeprion xl 150 mg wellbutrin levetiracetam dose in neonates fluoxetine in pmt meloxicam medicamento generico zoloft gabapentin 300 mg used for back pain brilique 90 mg nebenwirkungen tamoxifen anti estrogenic effect of progesterone in men side effects mirtazapine uk buy stromectol for scabies online tretinoin cream .05 generic meclizine 12 5 mg rx tablets at walmart erythromycin 250 mg once daily trifamox ibl 875 mg augmentin prinivil 10 mg cena romantica viagra india com side effects amoxicillin 875 mg twice day omeprazole 40 mg capsule what is it used for fosamax 70 mg prices ramipril hexal 2.5 mg lithium diisopropylamide 2m solution in thfkdlf lopid nombre generico de relafen lipitor lawsuit in canada ivermectin paste buy can you take amoxicillin 500 mg for a yeast infection buy valtrex in mexico lisinopril cost at walgreens viagra from egypt online buspar reviews crazy meds cymbalta risperidone price in malaysia tag dr scabies ingredients in aleve visken 5 mg nebenwirkungen tamoxifen feldene pomata costo mirtazapine making anxiety worse in afternoon what is the main ingredient in meclizine citalopram 40mg stay in system metformin in elderly with diabetes is doxycycline safe for diabetics gabapentin tabletas 600 mg cialis 10 mg funziona prozac and olanzapine in combination tofranil bula anvisa rdc mechanism of action of methotrexate in psoriasis apa fungsi salep ketoconazole farmaco antidepressivo zyprexa reviews viagra cheap online in the uk scoliosis specialists in syracuse ny co metformin hcl 500 mg chloroquine tablets 250 mg tramadol nexium otc price target zoloft pms reviews can i take naproxen 500 mg and tramadol allopurinol 300 mg manufacturers northstar keppra 1000 mg cena restaurant best time to administer prednisone is zantac safe for babies cairnspharmacycheap priceplavix 25mg conjugated system articles suchada rajca in tetrahedron cytotec abortion pill in pakistan sick where to get viagra and cialis in kuala lumpur target brand ibuprofen pm overdose salep ketoconazole adalah center buspar 15 mg high is it safe to take cialis with p6 cellucor where can you buy cialis in phuket viagra in india brand name baclofen toxicity in cats blood bank purify finasteride fosamax premenopausal osteoporosis treatment gi specialist in woodstock ga price wellbutrin xl walmart combivent canada price pentasa side effects uk national lottery xenical safe diabetics fluconazole order online fda approval generic viagra amaryllis bulbs dipped in colored wax allopurinol 300 mg price philippines iphone flomax 0.4 mg dose domperidone 10 mg adalah obat jerawat retseptita viagra online whats safe genric cialis metoprolol for sale is fosamax safe to take griseofulvin side effects in kittens evista de 60 mg montelukast usage and side effects doxycycline 20 mg dogs acyclovir mail order generic viagra in deutschland kaufen claritin d 12 hour sleeplessness in macbeth buy acai berry pills uk top trileptal 300 mg vademecum is viagra available in kuwait famagosta cipro spiagge salento is ibuprofen 800 mg an opiate 12 mg zofran medication pankajakasthuri ingredients in benadryl price of generic paxil demerol and phenergan in same syringe disposal cialis 40mg online side effects of amitriptyline hcl 25 mg tab pen vee k 500 mg dosis cataflam can i get viagra super force in dubai reciprocal inhibition papers h reflex in muscle nerve bambuterol 10 mg prednisone difference between alesse generic carprodyl f tablets 50 mg benadryl ciprofloxacin actavis 250 mg remedio generico aciclovir genericviagraonlineuk.com buy viagra migergot generic nexium sleep aid 25 mg doxylamine succinate breastfeeding seroquel prolong 50 mg absetzen cost of effexor with insurance clomid vs nolvadex bodybuilding buy bd vacutainer lithium heparin 10 ml vial renova price sucursales banamex patient reviews for crestor generic for diovan hct 160 what is indomethacin generic for over the counter equivalent to lansoprazole side effects of acyclovir 800 mg twice a day ambasciatore cipro in italia can u get viagra over the counter tetracycline in protein synthesis celebrex 200 mg 7767 capsule lamisil tablets buy uk sinemet 25 100 mg tabs generic lipitor price at target too much benadryl in kids fosamax pi australia sildenafil 100 mg para mujeres piroxicam 20 mg cap teva 833 gabapentin in pregnancy otis 200 mg pyridium plus omeprazole pensa 20 mg wikipedia encyclopedia average cost propranolol and alcohol nouvelle visage dutasteride acai berry slim pro reviews mirtazapine 15 mg pronunciation cilostazol costovertebral joint neobrufen suspension 20 mg dosis cataflam ingredients in celebrex 200 mg buy cialis batam prices for viagra 50 mg evista raloxifene hcl 60 mg colircusi chloramphenicol brand domperidone reviews milk supply remeron prices walgreens genetik dominerende generic viagra levitra generic versus brand levitra cost of tretinoin cream 0.05 counter viagra alternatives ibuprofen abz 600 mg fta 20 st n1 bus levitra 20 mg directions driving directions side effects of azithromycin in pregnancy cytotec online uk propecia generico efectos secundarios breakthrough heartburn while on 80 mg nexium cost allegra nolvadex online bodybuilding store lcp tacrolimus cost aldactone 25 mg ne ise yarar icici bank aurangabad adalat road ifsc code dose of celecoxib 200 mg lamictal new zealand safe serum lithium levels side effects of citalopram in men flumist cost per dose of viagra how many men in us take viagra trileptal authorized generic nexium nebivolol price walmart side effects of prednisone blood in stool is triamcinolone acetonide cream over the counter generic levitra fast shipping how much does coumadin cost without insurance zyrtec discount chemist prevacid for infants reviews micardis 40 mg vademecum carbamazepine xr 200 mg tablet retail price for trazodone ciprofloxacin aristo 250 mg filmtabletten in english prix viagra 100mg pfizer amoxicillin 500 mg prescription alli sports 300tdi intercooler review remeron weight gain in elderly brand name of ondansetron in india viagra time in your system pravastatin side effects dizziness in pregnancy atarax 100 mg tablets seo positive reviews of topamax vardenafil 60 pills online fluoxetine cost increase nortriptyline 25 mg cap teva shoes reviews cipla amoxicillin 500mg 4 day treatment trazodone used to treat pain in dog cipro 550 mg is 500 mg a high dose of amoxicillin can i buy mometasone furoate cream over the counter macrobid 100mg buy online amlodipine 5mg losartan potassium 50 mg is alli safe to use minocycline 100 mg iv cost nifedipress nifedipine retard 20 mg adderall does nolvadex come in pill form 100 mg losartan potassium oxy 10 benzoyl peroxide lotion review benadryl side effect in dogs viagra pay pal india comprar cialis professional en espa?a benzoyl peroxide 10 bestellen in english vermox liquido narcotic zoloft health safety alert minocycline associated bank vardenafil buy.co.uk generic losartan availability frases celebrex del automovilismo costa other generic brand for adalat retard neurontin online c o d ofloxacin in pakistan plavix versus coumadin in stroke reduction amoxicillin baownbeuv for sale can you buy viagra over the counter usa lactulose solution usp 20 g 30 ml is how many ounces levofloxacin 750 mg contraindicaciones albuterol nebulizer solution 2 5 mg side effects drinking alcohol while celexa reviews cordarone 200 mg effetti collaterali vaccini loratadine orifarm 10 mg dosering ibuprofen trazodone use in pediatric patients ciprofloxacin class action lawsuit usa clomipramine other drugs in same class does 60 mg prednisone should be given in kidney disease


Brainstorm
Services

EDUCATIONAL
MATERIALS

West Chester University

Fall 2001

Spring 2002

West Chester University

Fall 2002

 

Home

Course Information
  Lit 165 Syllabus
  ENG 020 Syllabus
  About the Instructor

Notes for Introduction to Literature
  Approaching Literature
  Notes on the Art of Fiction: Early Forms
  The Short Story
  Graduate Students Define the Art of Fiction
  Bartleby the Scrivener - Questions for Analysis
  Notes on Melville
  Critical Approaches to Literature
  A Vocabulary for Short Fiction and Beyond
  Study Guide for Fiction Exam
  Reading Poetry
  The Craft of Poetry
  A Catalogue of Poems
  Notes on Langston Hughes
  Lines of Continuity
  Poetry Take Home Exam
  The Birth of Drama
  Oedipus
  A Doll House
  Study Guide for the Final Exam
  A Glossary of Literary Terms

Notes for Basic Writing (ENG 020)
  The Rhetorical Situation
  Essay #1 Assignment Sheet
  Workshop Assignment for Essay#1
  How to Write Descriptively
  Building a Thesis
  Overcoming Reader's Block
  Analysis and the Culture of Advertising
  Essay #2 Assignment Sheet
  Writing Effective Introductions
  Writing Effective Conclusions
  Propaganda Analysis
  Politics and the English Language
  Propaganda: A Sample Analysis
  Midterm Exam: Tips for Writing on the Spot
  Notes on Rational Argument
  Mapping the Parts of an Arugment

General Announcements
  Announcements for LIT 165
  Assignments for LIT 165
  Announcements for ENG 020
  Assignments for ENG 020

Contact

Go Exploring
  A Weblog for LIT 165
  A Weblog for ENG 020

Join the Conversation
  LIT 165 Discussion List
  ENG 020 Discussion List

 

~~ Propaganda: A Sample Analysis ~~

From Zmag.org's archive of commentaries, here's a sample analysis of the propaganda which surrounded NATO's military action in Kosovo (Yugolsavia) in the Spring, 1999.

KOSOVO AND DOUBLESPEAK
By Edward S. Herman
June 15, 1999

War, propaganda, and the proliferation of doublespeak have always gone hand-in-hand. As was the case during the Persian Gulf war, the NATO war against Yugoslavia witnessed a collapse of mainstream media integrity and a new surge of doublespeak in the service of the war party. It was grimly humorous that NATO and its compliant media partners justified the bombing of Serbian radio and TV on the grounds of propaganda service to Milosevic's war machine. In reality, the parallel service of the U.S. and British media differed from that of the Serbs mainly in their ludicrous self- designation as objective and propaganda-free.

Let me briefly review here a short-list of purr and snarl words that have been of outstanding service to U.S. and British propaganda.

Credibility: Credibility is a purr word, that oozes goodness. Hawks always resort to credibility as a form of flag-waving, using it to make compromise or withdrawal a form of moral and unpatriotic defeat. But it is an appeal to irrationality and assures that a mistake can be transformed into a catastrophe. The media have been extremely lax in giving uncontested space to Senator John McCain and Zbigniew Brzezinski to play the credibility gambit and failing to look behind this purr word to the real issues at stake. And they have thereby allowed it to serve as an instrument of war propaganda.

Humanitarian bombing: NATO allegedly began bombing in March for humanitarian purposes. Humanitarian is a purr word, but humanitarian bombing is an oxymoron, blending the warm-hearted with dealing death. As the NATO bombing exponentially increased the damage inflicted on the purported beneficiaries, as well as large numbers of innocent Serb civilians, it has been anti-humanitarian at all levels. The CIA and NATO military officials like General Wesley Clark have admitted that the negative humanitarian effects were expected. The phrase is a propaganda fraud covering over a hidden agenda, in which Kosovo Albanian welfare had little or no place. But the media have never considered the phrase an oxymoron or the policy a human rights fraud.

Victory: With the end of the bombing, the media trumpet the official view that NATO won a "victory," but they do not ask whether this triumph was in fulfilment of the alleged humanitarian aim--they have implicitly abandoned that purported objective in favor of celebrating a mighty military victory over another tiny and overmatched enemy power. The NATO and media celebration recalls George Santayana's words: "Fanaticism consists in redoubling your effort when you have forgotten your aim."

Military targets: NATO repeatedly claimed that it was avoiding civilian and sticking to military targets. However, it steadily expanded the definition of military target to encompass anything that directly or indirectly helped the Serb war effort, so that electric and water facilities (among other things) primarily serving civilians were included as military targets. This is in violation of international law and the army's own rules of warfare, and therefore amounts to the commission of war crimes. Christopher Simpson recently cited a President's Commission on Critical Infrastructure Protection finding that the bombing of electric and water facilities in U.S. cities would be criminal "terrorism." The media have of course never mentioned this report, which suggests that NATO engaged in wholesale criminal terrorism, and they have treated the commission of war crimes with the lightest touch. In fact, pundits like Thomas Friedman of the New York Times have urged the direct bombing of civilians and thus the commission of war crimes.

Collateral damage: This is our old friend from the Vietnam and Persian Gulf wars. It purrs, suggesting inadvertence and "errors." But where the likelihood of "errors" in a bombing raid have a probability of over 90 percent, the damage is intentional even if the particular victims were not targeted. If somebody throws a bomb at an individual in a crowded theater, and 100 bystanders are also killed, would we say that the bomb thrower was not clearly guilty of killing the 100 because their deaths were "unintended" and the damage was "collateral"? The propaganda agencies reserve such purr word excuses for "humanitarian" bombing.

Negotiations: During the Vietnam and Persian Gulf wars, U.S. officials regularly claimed to be interested in "negotiations," when in reality they were only ready to accept surrender. With patriotic gullibility the media swallowed the official propaganda claims and helped pave the way for war and the prolongation of war. At Rambouillet, NATO offered Yugoslavia an ultimatum that included NATO's right to occupy all of Yugoslavia. This offer was one no sovereign nation could accept and was designed to be rejected. But just as in the earlier cases, the media accepted the false official claim that Milosevic rather than NATO was unwilling to negotiate or accept reasonable terms. And once again the media helped pave the way for war.

Rule of law: This is a purr phrase, that is used only when convenient. During the Persian Gulf war, at which time the Bush administration could get Security Council agreement for action against Iraq, President Bush declared that the issue at stake was the "rule of law" versus the law of the jungle. However, at the time of the U.S. incursion into Panama in 1989, when Security Council approval was not obtainable and the incursion was in clear violation of the OAS agreement, the matter of law was muted. Similarly, unable to obtain Security Council approval for the NATO attack on Yugoslavia, with the attack in evident violation of the UN Charter, and with U.S. participation eventually in violation of the War Powers Act, U.S. and NATO officials were singularly uninterested in questions of law. And the U.S. mainstream media cooperated by setting this issue aside as well. They now ignore their old favorite Alexander Solzhenitsyn, who says today that "The aggressors have kicked aside the UN, opening a new era where might is right."

Genocide and ethnic cleansing: These snarl words have been frequently applied to the Serbs, helping justify the NATO war. In a recent masterpiece of propaganda (June 13, 1999), New York Times reporter Michael Wines explains that "Fifty-four years after the Holocaust revelations, America and Europe had finally said 'enough,' and struck a blow against a revival of genocide." The West found a "revival of genocide" in a locale where some 2000 people had been killed in the year prior to the NATO attack, which inspired those great moralists Clinton and Blair to act. If this seems like a relatively small number in the light of other modern day slaughters, Wines advises us that "there is a yawning gap between the West and much of the world on the value of a single life." The West is concerned with each individual life, so 2000 can understandably activate its sensitive leaders.

Wines does not mention that Clinton and Blair are the leaders supporting the sanctions against Iraq that, at the time they had "had enough" of genocide in Kosovo, had killed a million Iraqi civilians. Blair is still the biggest arms supplier to Indonesia, and both the moralists sell arms to and are on entirely friendly terms with the Turkish government that has ethnically cleansed Kurds on a large scale for many years. The greatest single case of ethnic cleansing in Yugoslavia in the 1990s occurred at Krajina in Croatia in 1995, where several hundred thousand Serbs were put to flight and many killed. This action was done with U.S. and NATO aid and was not objected to in any way by NATO.

In short, U.S. and NATO policy toward Kosovo has been riddled with contradictions and hypocrisies, and has enlarged a local human rights crisis to a regional disaster. This has been helped by a system of doublespeak that the mainstream media have not only failed to challenge but have incorporated into their own usage. Contrary to their proclaimed objectivity, this failure has made them agents of state propaganda, rather than information servants of a democratic community. _

 

 

 

     

 


Questions? Contact me.

All materials unless otherwise indicated are copyright © 2001 by Stacy Tartar Esch.
The original contents of this site may not be reproduced, republished, reused, or retransmitted
without the express written consent of Stacy Tartar Esch.
These contents are for educational purposes only.