West Chester University

Fall 2001

Spring 2002

West Chester University

Fall 2002



Course Information
  Lit 165 Syllabus
  ENG 020 Syllabus
  About the Instructor

Notes for Introduction to Literature
  Approaching Literature
  Notes on the Art of Fiction: Early Forms
  The Short Story
  Graduate Students Define the Art of Fiction
  Bartleby the Scrivener - Questions for Analysis
  Notes on Melville
  Critical Approaches to Literature
  A Vocabulary for Short Fiction and Beyond
  Study Guide for Fiction Exam
  Reading Poetry
  The Craft of Poetry
  A Catalogue of Poems
  Notes on Langston Hughes
  Lines of Continuity
  Poetry Take Home Exam
  The Birth of Drama
  A Doll House
  Study Guide for the Final Exam
  A Glossary of Literary Terms

Notes for Basic Writing (ENG 020)
  The Rhetorical Situation
  Essay #1 Assignment Sheet
  Workshop Assignment for Essay#1
  How to Write Descriptively
  Building a Thesis
  Overcoming Reader's Block
  Analysis and the Culture of Advertising
  Essay #2 Assignment Sheet
  Writing Effective Introductions
  Writing Effective Conclusions
  Propaganda Analysis
  Politics and the English Language
  Propaganda: A Sample Analysis
  Midterm Exam: Tips for Writing on the Spot
  Notes on Rational Argument
  Mapping the Parts of an Arugment

General Announcements
  Announcements for LIT 165
  Assignments for LIT 165
  Announcements for ENG 020
  Assignments for ENG 020


Go Exploring
  A Weblog for LIT 165
  A Weblog for ENG 020

Join the Conversation
  LIT 165 Discussion List
  ENG 020 Discussion List

~~ Strategies for Writing an Effective Conclusion ~~


  • Does it bring the discussion to a logical close?
  • Does it strategically engage readers and make the material presented seem more memorable?


  • Use a transitional phrase which summarizes the main points or restates the thesis of your essay. For example: "As we have seen, poverty can create the kind of frustration, despair, desperation, and drug use that contributes to crime; therefore, working to alleviate poverty may be one of the most effective ways to prevent crime." This is called a "summary statement." Avoid the cliché phrases, "In summary," or "In closing," or "In conclusion," etc. These work better in speeches; in writing they come across as wooden and trite.
  • Use any of the strategies you used in your introduction to help you get the reader's attention and motivate him/her to keep thinking about your topic.
  • Create a satisfying sense of closure by referring back in some creative way to your introductory anecdote or scenario. Resume and then end the story, so to speak.
  • Draw a conclusion! (That is, present the generalized idea that logically follows from your discussion. You're attempting to clarify consequences, results, or implications.)
  • Elaborate on a vision of the future that logically follows from your discussion.
  • Call for action. Invite your readers to undertake specific actions which seem necessary according to your discussion.






Questions? Contact me.

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