buy glucovance without a prescription steba kb28 mini baclofen 28 liquid nitrogen fertilizer famvir once reviewed simvastatin price ukulele guarana tablets 1200 mg ibuprofen bromure de lithium climatisation montreal 15 mg lipitor cytotec in kenya traces of theophylline in blood ist viagra verkaufen illegal fluoxetine 10 mg used prozac 20 mg retail price diclofenac na 75 mg celexa reviews yahoo diclofenac na cf 50 mg dosering av klor after prostatectomy 20 mg cialis quetiapine in stroke generic version of tricor stronghold 30 mg pfizer viagra equate ibuprofen 400mg over the counter user 7634 buy female viagra how well does generic viagra work lexapro medication reviews clonidine reviews for perimenopausal symptoms how often can i take etodolac 400 mg can u take benadryl in your first trimester liquid atrovent dosage soft gel acai berry abc review 38 mg of diphenhydramine citrate msds asentra 100 mg gabapentin pimecrolimus cream generico do viagra side effects of singulair 10 mg a and lamont priligy howdotofound canada is fucidin ointment over the counter nizoral online australia para que sirve ciprofloxacin 250 mg cialis buy e20 claritin ultimate allergen barrier comforter reviews acai berry seeds uk is diflucan safe in a low dosage during pregnancy revista de derecho papers ivan chemistry communication raj thackeray in aap ki adalat full interview with mary tadalafil levitra generic sotalol medication review other medication like lexapro generic name prednisone dosage in mast cell tumors in dogs allopurinol price in india billige viagra generika avapro drug generic finasteride hair loss australia 451 plendil generic name over the counter viagra substitute in usa haldol ka bhat rathore cassette recorder quetiapine vs clonazepam reviews paroxetine 40 mg tablets prednisone dogs price is it safe to use zovirax during pregnancy spare ribs baclofen umluft in english side effects of citalopram hbr 10 mg mayo clinic how many mg amoxicillin for dog ritemed cetirizine price pasticche prozac generic local clinics that can prescribe viagra in palm desert best indian viagra names amitriptyline brand name australia orlistat capsules 120 mg dosage benzac acne solutions walmart locations motilium 1 mg ?urup af amiodarone dose in cardiac pantoprazole arrow 40 mg cena can i cut 0.625 premarin in half overdose prozac mg indapamide howdotofound discount is there real cialis 100mg crestor discount voucher how to make a section drawing in rhinocort topiramate 25 mg high foods viagra 6 100mg price walgreens buying lamisil tablets online loratadine biogaran 10 mg quetiapine 25 mg marcas registradas cialis prices in melbourne does valtrex work reviews what is ditropan 5 mg used for side effects of ibuprofen 200 mg vyvanse generic version of flonase type erasure generics for lexapro shatavari capsules online banking skelly s pub artane generic name telmisartan 80 mg dose estimulante masculino levitra reviews where can i buy clomid 100mg brand name for felodipine vitarum ranitidine 150 mg 100 2 can mg pill take viagra cialis 5 mg tb clopidogrel 75 mg tablet drl how much ibuprofen is safe to take in a 24 hour period precio de viagra de 100 mg en mexico can you buy dulcolax over the counter nomyc 150 mg fluconazole 200 buy cialis 20mg online canada phenergan side effects ukiah plavix pharmaceutical sales representatives paolo gabellini tenoretic generic what is the real name for venlafaxine costamezzana prednisone lexapro and libido in women how much does mega aggrenox cost pyrisept 200 mg posologia aciclovir asian lady in viagra commercial micardis 80 mg tbl se puede comprar viagra sin receta en valencia trazodone neuraxpharm 100 mg testberichte kindersitze ginisang kangkong ingredients in benadryl fluticasone inhaler brand names ducray melascreen depigmentant ingredients in aleve scientific name of lithium bipolar disorder 500 mg cipro for uti escitalopram duloxetine major depressive disorder cymbalta 30 mg 7 capsulas augmentin bambini 35 ml posologia zanaflex reviews cheap cialis si bupropion 300 mg price claritin toxicity in dogs spin ge 50 generic plavix celexa 20 mg tabs for guitar tranexamic acid in ortho surgery 60142 buy clomiphene citrate for infertility problems online safe cheap viagra online metronidazole dose in diarrhea prednisone streuli 20 mg posologie spasfon two 5 mg cialis the same as one 10mg bifort viagra online priligy 60 mg fiyati acquistare viagra in romania mobicity australian stock ciprofloxacin 750 mg once week crestor payment assistance canada kamagra bestellen paypal colchicine brand name pakistan average cost of minocycline china cymbalta reviews by patients proton 20 mg pantoprazole sodium viagra sellers in canada estradiol brand names actos de bondad real estate risperdal dosage in elderly escitalopram 5 mg webmd how long does 100 mg of diflucan stay in your system goodrx price synthroid prevacid in pediatrics aspirin c brausetabletten generika branches progesterone cream bestellen auf viagra available in rawalpindi plavix 60 mg como usar motilium e label montebello betamethasone use in circumcision thyroxine henning zusammensetzung chinese tadalafil spray for sale mn how long does quetiapine stay in your system how much plavix cost periactin liquid dose calculations gabapentin online order lipitor 10 mg ndc code erythromycin antibiotika in der schwangerschaft does celebrex 200 mg get you high phenytoin dose in epilepsy causes prednisone tapering from 60 mg to 40 mg pentasa 500 mg can i take less than 8 ciprofloxacin hcl 250 mg tablet pill can u take 1 000 mg of ciprofloxacin for tooth abscess role of caffeine in panadol extra celebrex 200 mg precio en chile amoxicillin 1000 mg 3 times a day recipes space jam astro ingredients in benadryl atomoxetine 40 mg compared to adderall lamictal 100 mg depression during pregnancy differin gel 0 3 buy prometrium 200 mg luteal phase defect causes phexin bd 750 used for sale liquid dampfen nebenwirkungen diclofenac no prescription 1000 mg zithromax buy topamax uk questions do doctors ask viagra generic liquid viagra wikipedia komposisi obat glucovance generic pastillas genericas de viagra online viagra forums cyproheptadine in cats celexa general anxiety disorder what does cephalexin look like in 500 mg caps meclizine hcl 25 mg anti emetic medication omeprazole 20 mg upotreba sode difference between trileptal generic generic viagra uk kamagra furosemide liquid dosage for cats remergil 15 mg nebenwirkungen viagra do i need a prescription for amoxicillin uk treatment foe overdose of fluconazole in cats amoxicillin and clavulanate potassium in dogs generic viagra review forums buspirone prices walmart can you take vitamin c lipitor generic szampon nizoral 100 ml cenacle there cheaper alternative crestor cialis really works viagra prices in walmart drug action of toprol xl generic arimidex generic canada meloxicam dosage in pet rats buy viagra in ny lexapro in adolescence buy terbinafine 250mg tablets uk generess fe positive reviews for celexa prednisone dose pack reviews ivermectin toxicity in german shepherds buy cialis daily use dutasteride generic uk address comprare cytotec on line indialevitra generica 8 mg of tizanidine thyroxine side effects in dogs viagra gels cheap simvastatin heumann 60 mg does prednisone cause facial hair in women socialism only works in heaven musa kusa cialis generico do fosamax d 56007 lexapro 10 mg for sezures keflex dosing in renal patients requip modutab 8 mg parkinson web forum thorntons chocolate truffles ingredients in benadryl paxil positive review how long does 5 mg dose of cialis last is viagra going to be sold over the counter colchicine 1mg price pentasa 500 mg dosage buy viagra 60601 is diflucan available over the counter in sydney kroger brand aspirin indomethacin over the counter equivalent to antivert annular erythema responding to tacrolimus ointment cost does 800 mg amoxicillin treat strep throat simvastatin price mercury drug website cialis 20mg south africa how much does it cost ug in bloodwork depakote meletti cioccolato ingredients in aleve doxycycline to buy with paypal the price of lasix pantoprazole 20 mg takeda sandoz bisoprolol 10 mg cymbalta 30 mg lopetus trx2 ingredients in aleve is claritin safe for hives risperdal consta 25 mg injekció depo provera injetavel trimestral in english are cipro and bactrim in the same drug class como usar differin crema robaxin muscle spasm reviews amitriptyline use in ibs clopidogrel loading in acs cheap cephalexin whartisthebestin triamcinolone injection brand names asacol hd generic zydus pharmaceuticals repaglinide 2mg price metronidazole 20 mg best dose of buspar yahoo viagra online where to buy etodolac 500 mg side effects of atenolol 25 mg ms sildenafil 100 mg once a day levaquin 750 mg espanol ciprofloxacin 1a pharma 250 mg ?ra strattera and chest pain in 12 year old boy cialis shoppers drug mart price when and when not to use digoxin in the elderly claritin 24 hour reviews ketoconazole 200 mg perros en hold order for digoxin absolute value and reciprocal functionsreview side effect of protonix 40 mg phenazopyridine 200 mg otc stocks dose ciproxin 500 mg galantamine ukulele norethindrone reviews zyrtec eye drops review sino ang mga mang aawit na may boses na tenoretic prednisone use in poison ivy buy albuterol on line is paracetamol or ibuprofen best for cold anafranil retard 75 mg . precio simethicone aero om 125 mg zoloft ranitidine for horses uk athletics where to buy generic finasteride uk differin acne treatment reviews reviews differin kaip veikia moteriska viagra for sale how much for your viagra 100m sell in pharmacy in uk dexamethasone in preterm labour bula medicamento luvox generic viagra from india safety matches augmentin 400 mg suspension dosage calculations lamictal reviews borderline personality disorder role of gabapentin in trigeminal neuralgia prometrium ovuli 100 mg ampicillin market names levofloxacin marketing mrps propecia cheap after patent runs out how long abilify stays in system quetiapina seroquel sr 50 mg benadryl v 5092 20 mg prednisone cialis 10 or 20 mg price frase celebrex de benito juarez en zapoteco indian safety of estrace clindamycin 150 mg information can u buy clomid over counter how long does prednisone stay in the body order tamoxifen canada nizoral buy online india azithromycin single dose online canada noxzema anti blemish pads ingredients in aleve atenolol dose adjustment in liver reza adalat papers by pierre rioux scheduling in ccgrid synthroid generic names benadryl cream generic 1000 mg ibuprofen alcohol withdrawal walgreens bupropion price what are the best times to take metformin ciprofloxacin tablets usp 500 mg uses kamagra 100 mg gebruiksaanwijzing price progesterone suppositories provera gramatike online verapamil 240 mg twice a day medical abbreviation cost of 50 mg viagra green bank ceftin park liverpool energy mango guava ingredients in benadryl ciprofloxacina 500 mg sirve para la amigdalitis role of captopril in nephrotic syndrome viagra for men fucked in woman to buy pure hoodia sertraline ocd thoughts feel real dosage for amoxicillin 875 mg for tooth levaquin 500 mg tablets price ingredients in acai berry detox ibuprofen 600 mg can you take 2 citalopram 80 mg projected date for generic viagra reviews xenical diet pill metoprolol tartrate 50 mg oral tab discount coupon cialis 1600 mg asacol side kamagra comparer prix que son los actos subestandares power bank lithium polymer pantip thailand activyl inactive ingredients in allegra where can i buy kamagra oral jelly in kuala lumpur is valtrex safe for teenagers diclofenac na cf 50 mg msrp ciprofloxacin in the elderly viagra is available in chennai retail price for lisinopril generic augmentin antibiotics viagra generico sirve domperidone in breast milk zyprexa 5 mg makes you sleep clindamycin in treatment of acne does diclofenac have tylenol in it buy online clomid 50mg tablet in india albuterol liquid high fiber side effects of new generic diovan cialis de quantas mg is it safe to drink and take zoloft is clonidine safe for a 3 year old celexa 40 mg ocd definition levofloxacin 500 mg n3 metronidazole prescription for dogs at walmart ortho micronor norethindrone reviews on wen tenaron meloxicam 15 mg dacogen generic nexium hydrochlorothiazide losartan generic pharmacy ibuprofen atid 200 mg filmtabletten clarithromycin 1a pharma 250 mg granulat entocort enema onde comprar gelo differin gel 0 3 comprar acciones lexapro walmart coupon azithromycin in brazil amoxicillin generic brand names acexamato de sodio generico de crestor address kamagra gel in massachusetts voltaren retard 75 mg novartis animal health ofe owerri ingredients in benadryl vardenafil by in riga azelastine hcl eye drops price remedio prelone generico do viagra claritin d for fluid in ears comprare cialis in farmacia what is amiodarone 200 mg tablets used for best way to lose weight with metformin pcos lortab highest mg of prozac brahmi seeds in bangalore health side effects of prilosec in dogs buying zovirax over the counter singapore where can i bye viagra capsules in hyderabad zenegra review of optometry prograf 1 mg kapsül effexor 37 5 for panic attacks user reviews dapoxetine genericons ice cream sugar cone ingredients in benadryl where to get viagra cheap xenical brand name sheet starting fluid ingredients in benadryl how much does cymbalta cost in bc, canada costco q10 200mg ibuprofen purchase of viagra in new zealand zyban price australian costo elocon pomata use of ranitidine in dogs donde puedo comprar cialis en madrid atenolol 25 mg twice a day monthly pill sandoz omeprazole 20 mg side effects home warfarin monitoring system cost gabapentin dose in cats do they sell benadryl over the counter amoxil 500 mg adalah hafez cpt code ondansetron 8 mg cloridrato de verapamil 80 mg preço sublingual progesterone dose menopausal order generic viagra online overnight ramipril 5 mg wirkstoff tilidin should you take cymbalta in the morning canadian motrin coupons bactrim 400 mg vidal chloroquine malaria tablets uk how many zithromax 250 mg is equal to 2g viagra gold 800 mg composition cheap viagra women diflucan 100 mg 3 tablets pepsodent white now ingredients in benadryl viagra buy online cheap com florinef 0 1 mg can i purchase it online prix du cialis 10mg en pharmacie does generic lexapro give headaches costco finasteride 1mg buy amaryl 1 mg comprimate orale loratadine 10 mg wiki de orlistat baownbeuv for sale accepting paypal payments for viagra crestor 5 mg bula pdf995 citalopram ratiopharm 20 mg natrium diclofenac salepi diclofenac 75 mg tablets uses omeprazole 20 mg capsules sandoz street price of 600 mg ibuprofen vermox discontinued in us plavix anvisa topamax effectiveness in bipolar where do you buy amoxicillin trihydrate for birds nexium 10 mg packers schedule what is the dosage for benadryl in cats generika propecia meinung meloxicam in system benzoyl peroxide products in pakistan best tamsulosin 0.4 mg causing stuffy nose crestor 20 mg plm zoloft in breast milk toddler elevated estradiol in dogs permethrin shampoo brands clindamycin is generic for diflucan fluconazole 150 mg adalah cara beloc zok 95 mg anwendungsentwicklung lithium side effects uk norvasc price in malaysia blackberry generico do cataflam comprimidos can i take 2 x 400 mg ibuprofen breastfeeding omeprazole capsules 20mg buy imitrex generic form of ambien what is the generic of prozac does target parmacy sell over the counter fluconazole prednisone for arthritis in cats bp tablet telmisartan brand zovirax tablet in mercury is it safe to take cipro and cephalexin together lexapro for social anxiety disorder buying viagra gelly thailand cardura xl 8 mg 30 kont salim clonidine 0 1mg reviews of windows olmesartan medoxomil brand names can i take 200 mg trazodone leflunomide mechanism of action in rheumatoid arthritis curacne vs accutane generic dapoxetine and viagra review ndc for dexamethasone acetate 1 mg buy dapoxetine online australia shopping cialis generico farmacias similares accutane pulled from market is flagyl safe with alcohol bystolic generic version of viagra about esomeprazole mag 20 mg


Brainstorm
Services

EDUCATIONAL
MATERIALS


West Chester University

Fall 2002

West Chester University

Spring 2002

Fall 2001

 

 

 

Home

Course Information
  WRT 120 Syllabus
  Lit 165 Syllabus
  About the Instructor

Notes for Effective Writing I
  Understanding the 'Rhetorical Situation'
  Writing Descriptively
  What Makes a Good Story?
  Building a Thesis
  Notes on 'Purpose'
  Strategies for Writing Introductions
  Strategies for Writing Conclusions
  Assignment #5: Argument
  Understanding Rational Argument

Notes for Introduction to Literature
  Fundamental Questions About Literature
  Critical Approaches to Literature
  Approaching Literature
  Ambiguity
  Critical Thinking and Reading Literature
  Notes on Four Short Stories
  The Genesis of the Short Story
  Defining the Short Story
  The Art of the Short Story
  A Vocabulary for Fiction and Beyond
  Notes on Nathaniel Hawthorne
  Responding to 'The Birthmark'
  A Guided Reading of 'Bartleby the Scrivener'
  Bartleby--Questions for Analysis
  A Cultural Context for 'Bartleby the Scrivener'
  Notes on Innovative Fiction
  Study Guide for Fiction Exam
  Billy Collins - 'Introduction to Poetry'
  A Catalogue of Poems for Study
  Approaching a Definition of Poetry?
  Reading Poetry
  The Craft of Poetry: Imagery
  Readings from 'The United States of Poetry'
  The Craft of Poetry: Sound
  The Craft of Poetry: Structure
  Lines of Continuity
  Study Guide for Poetry Exam
  The Birth of Drama
  On Tragic Character
  Stepping Through 'Oedipus the King'
  Analyzing 'Oedipus the King'
  The Relevance 'Oedipus'Today
  Study Guide for the Drama Exam

Announcements and Assignments
  WRT 120 Announcements
  WRT 120 Assignments
  LIT 165 Announcements
  Lit 165 Assignments

Contact

Go Exploring
  Weblog for WRT 120
  Weblog for LIT 165
  Writing Assistance on the Web

Join an Online Forum
  WRT 120 Composition Forum
  LIT 165 Introduction to Literature Forum

 
~~ Notes on the Art of the Short Story~~

When it comes to defining the art of the short story, nearly everyone hesitates, including me. We're all a little wary of defining exactly what a short story is, what it's supposed to do. Notice the careful way that writer (and in this case, reviewer) Sven Birkerts begins this review, which appeared in the New York Times a while back. He's getting ready to discuss T. Coraghessan Boyle's new short story collection, After the Plague.

There are probably as many ways to skin the short story cat as there are qualified skinners. What a range of approaches the form allows, and what a range of pleasures it delivers. From Chekov's subtly suggestive bleeding together of characters and circumstances to Borges's sly metaphysical parables to Alice Munro's deep-time feats of narrative counterpoint, every great short-story writer has a unique way of making the world come alive on paper.

My guess is the Times editor working on this article probably cut Birkerts short! Once you start a list like that you can hardly stop. What about the uncanniness of Kafka or Melville, the ironic subtlety of Kate Chopin, the verbal pyrotechnics of John Updike? What about the mythic folkiness of Marquez, the psychological allegories of Hawthorne, or the psychotic characters and suspenseful plots in Poe? Where do you stop with something like this once you start?

Where do we start in our own effort to grasp the art of the short story?

As we've seen previously, although the written "narrative" is at least as old as civilization, the short story as a distinct literary genre, a consciously crafted art-form, developed relatively late in the game, in the 19th century. Even today people who study literature struggle to define precisely what a short story is "supposed' to be, how it's "supposed" to be crafted. Every time someone comes up with a definition—saying, for instance, something like "stories are about real people"—some gleefully playful creative writer comes along and breaks the rule—shatters the rule. Wins a Nobel Prize redefining the parameters. (Gabriel Garcia Marquez, for instance) So new definitions have to be fashioned to accommodate the stuff innocently sitting out there on the fringe. Or at least we try not to be so arrogant as to think we can encompass everything with one definition.

But academics have to try; it's what we do. So here's the standard definition from a standard literary glossary:

"[A short story is] a relatively brief fictional narrative in prose, anywhere from 500-15,000 words in length. Distinct from the "sketch" or the "tale" in that it has a definite formal development, finding its unity in more than plot-in character, effect, theme, tone, mood, and style."

This works at least part way, emphasizing formal, measurable elements like length, plot, character, etc., etc. We can make use of it because all of those things do on the whole appear in most short stories. But what about a short story like "Girl"? No plot. Is it not a short story? And there's that very strange point of view. What to make of that? But it works. It started her entire career as a writer in America. Or what about stories just one paragraph, or even just three sentences long?

Taboo
by Enrique Anderson Imbert
1966

His guardian angel whispered to Fabian, behind his shoulder:
"Careful, Fabian! It is decreed that you will die the minute you pronounce the word doyen."
"Doyen?" asks Fabian, intrigued.
And he dies.

How can we define something that tries so hard to be undefinable?

Fortunately, I think there are ways. I think it's possible to understand the short story by understanding, first, that one of its primary purposes is to reveal a character in action. Even in this three sentence story we have character revealed in action. Fabian wants to listen to his guardian angel, but fate is stronger than human will; the guardian angel (who seems pretty human, too) wants to help but like a schlemiel winds up hurting more than helping. As brief, compact, and compressed as a short story is, the reader gets to know the true nature of its main character, even intimately. Fabian has a guardian angel. There's a lot to infer from that if we wish to. And the guardian angel isn't all that swift. Maybe there's even more to infer from that! Think of how much we know about Miss Brill in just a few short pages of words. Now in a novel, we can watch a character develop over time, as a result of accumulated experience, but in a short story, there's no time. There's more or less one blazing moment, sometimes very brief. The art of the short story as opposed to the novel, then, is economy. Although there are notable exceptions, by and large the action in a short story takes place in a relatively brief period of time—and what happens in this brief period of time gives us a glimpse into the true nature of the person, the human being embroiled in that moment's flame.

Another way to approach understanding the art of the short story is to recognize that there are more than a few elements common to many short stories, and studying these elements can help us get started. You've already identified several of these story "elements" yourselves in class last week. You emphasized issues relating to character, plot, style, theme...obviously you're not novices. These are many of the same basic elements your textbook emphasizes. Let's look more closely at some of these key elements.

PLOT
Sometimes plots are suspenseful. Sometimes they aren't. Some readers prefer suspenseful plots. Some readers don't care, as long as there is some element of intensity that holds their interest. Some concepts to consider when you're analyzing or evaluating a story's plot are as follows:

  • Exposition: what information do you need to appreciate what will happen during the time frame of the story?
  • Foreshadowing: a technique the author uses to plant the seeds for action that will follow. Early hints to what will happen later.
  • Rising action: When the action/conflict/events intensify
  • Conflict: What are the forces opposed to one another in the story?
  • Crisis: Sometimes called the turning point-when the action reaches its peak or the biggest conflict arises
  • Dilemma: What's the problem at the heart of the action?
  • Crisis point: Sometimes called the climax-the pinnacle of the action.
  • Falling action (denouement): After the climax, the restoration or resolution of the conflict. The outcome.\
  • Epiphany: a moment of startling, sudden insight gained by the main character as a result of the unfolding of events in the story

As you can see, analyzing a story's plot involves more than feeling suspense. Suspense is one small part of the package. Essentially, plot means the artistic arrangement of events in a story; the causal sequence. In life, things happen chaotically. It isn't always possible to trace the causal sequence that binds events to one another. But like practicing Buddhists who believe in causation as an inherent truth—the law of karma—a traditional short story operates on the premise that everything that happens as a result of cause and effect. You may have learned the famous dictum in your high school lit class when you studied Oedipus—one theme of that artful, ancient play is that "character determines fate." Things happen for a reason. In life we can't always discern the reasons why certain things happen. But in an expertly crafted short story, it's possible to discover how we create our circumstances by being the kind of people we are. We create our own fate. Character determines fate. The traditional short story very much lives by that rule.

On the other hand, you may, even in your young years, have come to the conclusion that the universe is absurd, following no laws, or absurd laws. You may have observed bad things happening to good people, or good things happening to bad people, and you may have completely rejected the notion that character determines fate. In that case, you may find yourself bored with the traditional kind of story and your taste may take you out to the fringes. You may be more alternative, with a penchant for Franz Kafka or Samuel Beckett, or you may find yourself drawn to the kind of stories that don't sum up easily or offer easy answers to complex questions, stories that don't telegraph what you should think about them, stories that leave it to you to decide. "What happened?" is often a complex kind of question to answer after reading a story like that. ("Girl" by Jamaica Kinkaid comes to mind…)

CHARACTER
This is a pretty straightforward element, meaning, the people in the story. I agree with you that you want characters you can relate to, feel something for, get worked up about. Making that happen is the writer's biggest responsibility, because if you decide you don't care about the characters, you probably don't like the story. You may hate the characters, but that's not the same thing as not caring. When you get apathetic about or bored by a character, the writer may have failed in some important way, or there may be something you're missing.

There are a few ways you can think about the characters you meet in a short story. Here's some new terms to consider:

  • Protagonist—the leading character; the main character
  • Antagonist—the force acting against the main character
  • Flat character—a one-dimensional representation
  • Round character—a multi-dimensional representation
  • Dynamic character—one who changes or grows from beginning to end
  • Static character—one who never changes or grows from beginning to end

POINT OF VIEW
No one mentioned this element in the group comments or the individual responses! But every short story has a "storyteller," a narrator, or a voice that tells the story. This voice is NOT the voice of the author, but an element of the story. The narrator can be a crucial part of the story. The point of view is so named because it's the storyteller which determines the angle of vision, the vantage point from which readers see and hear what's going on. There are many familiar, and some unfamiliar points of view possible in a short story.

  • Omniscient narrator—an all-knowing consciousness in the mind of every character simultaneously
  • Limited omniscient narrator—in the mind of one character, usually the main character
  • First Person: reliable vs. unreliable narrators—a character in the story tells the story
  • Objective or "camera eye" narrator—an omnicient narrator with a neutral consciousness, like a camera filming events

Other elements like setting contribute to a story's "form" as well. Some of best stories are those in which form and content merge and reverberate so seamlessly that they seem to be inherently connected to one another.

LITERARY ELEMENTS NOT SPECIFIC TO FICTION

Fiction, because it is a literary art, shares certain artistic elements with poetry and drama:

  • THEME
  • IRONY
  • AMBIGUITY
  • PARADOX
  • SYMBOLISM
  • ALLUSION
  • VERISIMILITUDE
  • SIMILE/METAPHOR
  • PERSONIFICATION

We'll visit these terms more in depth in A Vocabulary for Fiction and Beyond.

 

 

 

     

 


Questions? Contact me.

All materials unless otherwise indicated are copyright © 2001-2002 by Stacy Tartar Esch.
FALL 2001 site is available at BRAINSTORM-SERVICES.COM
The original contents of this site may not be reproduced, republished, reused, or retransmitted
without the express written consent of Stacy Tartar Esch.
These contents are for educational purposes only.