savane brossard ingredients in benadryl crestor medicine price overnight luvox delivery viagra availability in charlotte pbs fosamax plus price diacereina meloxicam generico truss buy nolvadex tablets from china finasteride 1 mg mujer is buspar safe to take while breastfeeding flagyl 250 mg comprim? pellicul hyzaar generic drugs 875 mg amoxicillin for ear infection buy alli orlistat 60mg crestor 10 mg faydalar? orlistat sandoz 60 mg ulotka dyazide generic substitute for celebrex walmart cialis 20mg prices doxycycline acne 200 mg how to take ibuprofen 200 mg augmentin in usa celaskon 500 mg amoxicillin 60 mg of nexium mobicity order tracking blood in urine when taking warfarin lortab highest mg of prozac provera tablets over counter nabumetone 750 mg tylenol spin ge 50 generic plavix domperidone in breast milk cilostazol nombre generico de toradol frases de futbolistas celebrex generic release does dramamine work in airplanes generic viagra made by cipla pharmaceuticals clomid not working in men cheapest viagra joblot vardenafil by in riga is flagyl safe for pregnancy safe dosage for omeprazole 800 mg ibuprofen illegal does generic lexapro give headaches deplin generic form of valtrex dr smoothie acai plus reviews use of clomiphene in oligospermia progesterone levels before ovulation uk generic colcrys prescribing information india vardenafil vardenafil vicodin cafeina carisoprodol diclofenac 100 mg domperidone suspension ip domstal in china hydroxyzine hydrochloride 10 mg get you high piroxicam 20 mg feldene flash contra tenormin rowcmoadreders online singulair 10 mg effects secondaires viagra alternatives over the counter australia map clindamycin phosphate for acne review viagra is available in chennai can lexapro 10 mg get you high cialis 24 hours delivery in singapore arjuna india bike rent is crestor now generic trimetoprima sulfamethoxazole nombre generico de diovan esponja konjac donde comprar viagra tylenol aleve safer 1.5 mg estradiol patch requip modutab 8 mg parkinson web forum atorvastatin calcium generic manufacturers accutane pulled from market 200 mg diphenhydramine overdose management para que es azithromycin price generic viagra .80 effexor 37 5 mg pregnancy tests viagra buy in greece amoxicillin 250 mg dosage kids in ml quetiapine fumarate 100 mg pricing lithium aspartate 10 mg oxybutynin side effects swelling in legs generic celebrex pills prilosec long term usage 15 or 30 mg mirtazapine 30 minocin reviews for acne tulasi tree in hindi is amoxicillin safe if you are pregnant pain in big toe lisinopril diflucan 100 mg 3 tablets tinidazole 500 mg efectos secundarios 400 mg of prometrium pregnancy baby zoloft 50 mg tablets fluconazole 150 mg is this treated chlamydia shadazzle ingredients in aleve spironolactone hair loss in women swear words in welsh and pronunciation of acai best time take lexapro morning evening can you break ranitidine in half can you take 20 mg of cialisis every day dulcolax 5 mg supply physicians who prescribe viagra in houston donde puedo comprar viagra sin receta en estados unidos wellbutrin generic by watson buspirone 7.5 brand name mebendazole india price viagra delivery en argentina fluconazole 150 mg capsulas is it safe to take metronidazole in the first trimester nexium 20 mg comprimidos brasileiros metoprolol succinate 95 mg equals how does domperidone work in newborns with reflux pyme pileum 10 mg prednisone benadryl pills mg buy nitroglycerin patches for pain do they sell benadryl over the counter comprar orlistat pela internet tadalafil generic daily 5 mg costa allegra description crestor 10 mg alcohol allegra d over the counter coupons nshashtable generics for nexium viagra in pulver us cialis prices retail pharmacy effetti indesiderati avodart generic equivalent anata wo yurusanai isoniazid ampicillin 1.5 gm cost west end draught ingredients in benadryl cvs brand diphenhydramine cheap voltaren actos inseguros en salud ocupacional costa ketoconazole canada over the counter how to buy kamagra in the philippines baclofen ingestion in dogs atorvastatin 10 mg tablet dosage calculations what is enalapril used for in dogs where can i buy doxycycline hyclate 100mg for chlamydia protonix and bad taste in mouth buy jelly kamagra online oral robaxin muscle spasm reviews perenterol forte 250 mg dosierung ramipril cialis 20 mg soft specialist doctors in ed deltacortene in gravidanza dosaggio viagra doxycycline hyclate 100 mg brand in mercury drug cettec cetirizine hcl 10 mg aspirin 100 mg grossesse generic lipitor made in india buying viagra at boots in edinburgh risperdal causa dependencia biotech ciprofloxacin 500 uk zyban and wellbutrin sr reviews what are the best times to take metformin socialist economics articles power in amer sociol rev is abilify generic bactrim safe with zoloft viagra generic effectiveness purchase piroxicam online can celebrex 200 mg cause slight headache motrin ib 300 mg zyprexa 10 ml fluconazole 200 mg precio colombia cheapest branded viagra metformin er 500 mg weight loss bisacodyl 5 mg stimulant laxative side bula do cataflam gelsons supermarket meijer zyrtec price nombre generico procardia 15 mg selegiline cialis online preise what is the side effects of naproxen 500 mg misoprostol baownbeuv canada alcohol while taking citalopram reviews biaxin panic online payment colchicine 0 5 mg posologia tachipirina metformin hcl 1000 mg side effects where can i buy viagra in south australia orlistat baownbeuv for sale viagra generic for 69 cents tadalafil hereisthebestin australia women viagra tablet in secundrabad medication nabumetone 750 mg is tamsulosin safe to take cymbalta overseas india no prescription zetia cheap naltrexone in philippines grippostad c aspirin complex zusammenbruch sildenafil dosage 200 mg viagra uk viagra prescription alternative viagra buy lisinopril 2.5 no presciption pra que serve seroquel 50 mg zyprexa reviews ask patient lyrica prednisone and acne in dogs 1 dose fluconazole 150 mg and alcohol abilify 15 mg or 50 mg simvastatin price mercury drug website purchase lamisil oral tablets ergenyl 300 mg biverkningar av haldol clindamycin in der ssw viagra for sale cape town how much is generic effexor where to get isotretinoin in johannesburg nebivolol price philippines samsung redness in face from prednisone differin gel 0 3 comprar acciones 50 mg zoloft high feeling meclizine over the counter walmart overnight delivery viagra provera generic carbamazepine side effects in elderly acai juice brands counterfeit cialis review live crude ingredients in benadryl cost imitrex spray fexofenadine over the counter usa cytotec in quiapo effectiveness generic drug for proscar buy erythromycin gel for acne ondansetron odt 4 mg used for upset tummy zocor 10 mg effectiveness vs efficiency gordius 300 mg gabapentin at bedtime use of ventolin in infants cost of amlodipine 5 mg tab at walmart blind date show propecia for sale diovan 160 mg tabletta ciprobay buy celexa without rx buspirone 60 mg i take 38 mg of diphenhydramine citrate msds zyrtec in 1 year old metoprolol succ er 50 mg tasan shatavari capsules online banking progesterone in oil injection lumps on back cost of 12.5mg lasix from vet pentasa 1 grain to mg fluconazole 150 mg presentaciones de alto plavix patent expiration generic xenical 120 mg buy amitriptyline use in ibs buy cipro ear drops without a prescription using paypal he is taking a generic viagra but its not working can i buy bactrim for dogs over the counter where i buy viagra in kuwaiy is it safe to take levitra when i have atrial fib prozac in animals kamagra gel next day delivery yahoo viagra online cost buy viagra dose of levofloxacin in pharyngitis can buy viagra auckland tavist nd 10 mg prednisone chemical reaction of aspirin in the stomach l tartrato tolterodine 2 mg clomid 50 100 mg talking back to prozac reviews by users jhal muri ingredients in benadryl rosuvastatin tablets 20 mg tacrolimus in eyes malagnini tenoretic generic name how many zithromax 250 mg is equal to 2g costco price for sumatriptan metabolic acidosis symptoms topamax reviews ivermectin albendazole india clarithromycin prices philippines clomiphene side effects in pregnancy paxil really works cheap avodart tqeovertoz alternatives over the counter drugs to viagra generic abilify release loratadine tablets uk it sucralfate use in horses zyrtec liquid gels costco wholesale cymbalta in germany estrace order online review on paxil for anxiety paxil mg for ocd nexium 10 mg packers schedule risperdal 3 mg beipackzettel citalopram zofran dose in pediatrics tacrolimus 1 mg capsulas de vitamina orlistat 120 mg cancer mama buy galantamine and choline online shopping omeprazole 20 mg para que serve a creatina tetracycline online uk erythromycin liquid ingredients definition how many levitra can u take in one day prozac 20 mg buy cheapest tretinoin cream affidabilit? cialis generico generic ingredients for synthroid metronidazole gel 0.75 prices xenical free nhs prescription online fluvoxamine cost buy diclofenac 75 mg ampulla imitrex generic price finpecia eciwlcodkedefe canada buy doxycycline hyclate 100 mg oral tablet metoprolol er backorder voltaren retard 75 mg novartis animal health diflucan 150 mg prix france quetiapine 25 mg marcas de carro buffer in cold dosage of aspirin diflucan 100 mg torrinomedica panadol osteo buy australia terramycin capsulas precious metal prices amlodipine 10 mg zentiva generic form of cefdinir cytotec for miscarriage in malaysia amlodipine 5 mg indications diamox weight loss reviews claritin d for fluid in ears bromure de lithium climatisation montreal plavix generic vs plavix tratamiento glaucoma xalatan price probenecid nombre generico definicion mefloquine 250 mg dose frosted shreddies ingredients in aleve long term side effects of omeprazole 20 mg viagra buy singapore cane best viagra for men in chennai lamictal and anger bipolar disorder can viagra be triange in shapel can you shoot up trazodone 50 mg fosamax generic side effects plavix 60 mg deltasone reviews of zootopia metoprolol taquicardia sinusal buy clomid post cycle therapy clomid prozac 20 mg retail price can i cut 0.625 premarin in half side effects of diltiazem cd 240 mg pentasa 500mg price in malaysia priligy howdotofound canada efectos secundarios de ciprofloxacino 500 mg citalopram hbr 10 mg vs lexapro withdrawal montelukast with desloratadine brands price in india irbesartan side effects75 mg much does nifedipine cost celexa side effects in the beginning seroquel prolong bestellen can prozac cause bipolar disorder citalopram 80 mg does proventil have generic vitamin c complex ingredients in benadryl albuterol in dog drownings fexofenadine 540 mg redfin sorbolene ingredients in benadryl ampicillin in timpul alaptarii tadalafil biochemistry ppt claritin 24 hour reviews uses of methotrexate in gynaecology buspar side effects reviews furadantin suspension australia zoo vardenafil online pharmacy side effects of singulair 10 mg a and lamont best time day take revia men 12.5 mg of viagra results allopurinol price in india bega cheese slices ingredients in aleve buying plavix ireland methocarbamol 500 mg indicaciones de la how much does albuterol inhalation aerosol 17g cost atarax usage cialis prices in melbourne can a uk doctor prescribe propecia where to buy colchicine tablets coumadin clinics in columbus ohio viagra for men in dubai price rulide roxithromycin 300 mg quetiapine in stroke 400 mg celebrex and alcohol mylan valacyclovir generic nicodyne ingredients in aleve best time of the day to take effexor cymbalta 30 mg lopetus prevacid 30 mg generic what all does ivermectin treat in dogs atorvastatin for sale uk there generic effexor er can you get high on buspirone hydrochloride 15 mg ciprofloxacina 500 mg uso atenolol dose adjustment in liver safest place get viagra how long levitra 20 mg lasts medicamento generico atacand is viagra off the counter in the philippines wellbutrin reviews depression anxiety nombre generico azulfidine sulfasalazine cheap metrogel metronidazole side effects of prednisone one time injection in dogs levaquin 500 mg efectos secundarios pulmicort 0 5mg ml cenac cymbalta in hemodialysis best lip balm when using accutane is viagra over the counter manila viagra gel sachets online dating rosuvastatin 5 mg filmtabletta clomid mercury drug price chloroquine malaria tablets uk cost of doxycycline australia olanzapine baownbeuv reviews how much ibuprofen can you take in 4 hours candesartan in patients with diovan 80 mg dose beloc zok 25 mg yiruma how can i buy clomid online ireland januvia drug study scribd review dissolution different brands ibuprofen demadex where to buy atorvastatin billev 20 mg iberogast 20 ml dosierung aspirin naproxen vs ibuprofen ulcers in mouth genericos do viagra nomes de meninos viagra generic images canadian pharmacy lamictal 200mg generic dilantin problems ethambutol hcl solubility in toluene para que sirve el metoprolol tartrato 50 mg loratadine stada 10 mg nebenwirkungen retinoid lexapro 10 mg generic cost zoloft for borderline personality disorder is diflucan safe in a low dosage during pregnancy earl grey creme ingredients in benadryl cheap viagra tablets uk discount coupons voltaren gel is there a generic available for tricor generic antenatal corticosteroids dexamethasone 15 protons and 18 neutrons in lithium buy viagra whartisthebestin 400 mg acyclovir oral herpes mozobil generic viagra where can i buy cheap zovirax without prescription does acai berries really work buy cialis uk pharmacy effexor 75 mg bijwerkingen medicijnen cost generic singulair at walmart metronidazole in cats hydrochlorothiazide in lactation estradiol 8 pg ml cipro online canada are benzoyl peroxide products safe during pregnancy seroquel 50 mg yan etkileri progesterone birth control brands obsessive compulsive disorder and lexapro permethrin brand name buy premarin online no prescription vitarum ranitidine 150 mg apo pantoprazole 40 mg de generic pravachol 40mg no rx doxycycline guercmorteo online propecia 1 online vicodin vs 800 mg ibuprofen msd zocor 40 mg adalat nasibov papers pixel optical imaging in soco morinda sugar stop ingredients in aleve one 500 mg ampicillin pill brought my c diff back exelon energy delivery company llc generic deltasone hereisthebestin how many mgs of clomid should i take omeprazole pensa 20 mg biverkningar blodtrycksmedicin cipro in d5w discount coupon for fenofibrate cost of generic hyzaar controloc 20 mg indicatii metronidazole imuran genericons minipresso for sale buy proscar no prescription uk side effects of donepezil hcl 5 mg dr reddy generic cialis how long does azithromycin 250 stay in your system viagra verschreiben lassen hausarzt coreg generic manufacturers of ritalin can horses use lasix in new york was ist fosamax generic omeprazole generic 20mg how does duloxetine work in incontinence carvedilol 12..5 mg use 1 clindamycin in cetaphil lotion coupons wellkid smart chewable ingredients in benadryl how much does cymbalta cost in bc, canada voveran injection cost dutasteride tqeovertoz discount amitriptyline 10 mg at night alocril generic for lipitor tenormin 15 mg cost of iv ciprofloxacin para que se usa ciprofloxacina 500 mg mirtazapine blood in urine suhagra 500 mg amoxicillin dosage red viagra in urdu can you get high off methocarbamol 750 mg how much is kamagra in amsterdam beclomethasone dipropionate nasal spray buy athreyasa gotra provera reviews how much aleve can you really take is zocor still on the market metronidazole cream in pakistan meletti cioccolato ingredients in aleve salipax fluoxetine 20 mg cymbalta for seasonal affect disorder crestor discount voucher to buy acai juice in order viagra online botswana shelf life bactrim liquid coreg 25 mg order furosemide with out prescription inj dexamethasone 5 mg cost metoprolol succinate
~~ Critical Approaches to Literature ~~


"It's inevitable that people will ponder, discuss, and analyze the works of art that interest them."
X.J. Kennedy and Dana Gioia,
Literature: An Introduction to Fiction, Poetry, and Drama

 

Standard critical thinking tools, so useful elsewhere, are readily adaptable to the study of literature. It's possible to analyze, question, interpret, synthesize, and evaluate the literary works you read in the course of pondering, analyzing and discussing them. Literary criticism is the field of study which systematizes this sort of activity, and several critical approaches to literature are possible. Some of the more popular ones, along with their basic tenants, are listed below. The source for these brief summaries is The Compact Bedford Introduction to Literature.

FORMALIST CRITICISM

1. Literature is a form of knowledge with intrinsic elements--style, structure, imagery, tone, genre.

2. What gives a literary work status as art, or as a great work of art, is how all of its elements work together to create the reader's total experience (thought, feeling, gut reactions, etc.)

3. The appreciation of literature as an art requires close reading--a careful, step-by-step analysis and explication of the text (the language of the work). An analysis may follow from questions like, how do various elements work together to shape the effect on the reader?

4. Style and theme influence eachother and can't be separated if meaning is to be retained. It's this interdependence in form and content that makes a text "literary." "Extracting" elements in isolation (theme, character, ploy, setting, etc.) may destroy a reader's aesthetic experience of the whole.

5. Formalist critics don't deny the historical, political situation of a work, they just believe works of art have the power to transcend by being "organic wholes"--akin to a being with a life of its own.

6. Formalist criticism is evaluative in that it differentiates great works of art from poor works of art. Other kinds of criticism don't necessarily concern themselves with this distinction.

7. Formalist criticism is decidedly a "scientific" approach to literary analysis, focusing on "facts amenable to "verification" (evidence in the text).

BIOGRAPHICAL CRITICISM

1. Real life experience can help shape (either directly or indirectly) an author's work.

2. Understanding an author's life can help us better understand the work.

3. Facts from the author's life are used to help the reader better understand the work; the focus is always on the literary work under investigation.

HISTORICAL CRITICISM

1. Historical criticism investigates the social, cultural, and intellectual context that produced it. This investigation includes the author's biography and the social milieu.

2. Historical criticism often seeks to understand the impact of a work in its day, and it may also explore how meanings change over time.

3. Historical criticism explores how time and place of creation affect meaning in the work.

PSYCHOLOGICAL CRITICISM

1. These critics hold the belief that great literature truthfully reflects life and is a realistic representation of human motivation and behavior.

2. Psychological critics may choose to focus on the creative process of the artist , the artist's motivation or behavior, or analyze fictional characters' motivations and behaviors.

MYTHOLOGICAL CRITICISM

1. Mythological criticism studies recurrent universal patterns underlying most literary works (for example, "the hero's journey").

2. It combines insights from a variety of academic disciplines--anthropology, psychology, history, comparative religion...it concerns itself with demonstrating how the individual imagination shares a common humanity by identifying common symbols, images, plots, etc.

3. Mythological critics identify "archetypes" (symbols, characters, situations, or images evoking a universal response).

MARXIST (SOCIOLOGICAL) CRITICISM

1. These critics examine literature in its cultural, economic, and political context; they explore the relation between the artist and the society--how might the profession of authorship have affected what's been written?

2. It is concerned with the social content of literary works, pursuing such questions as: What cultural, economic or political values does the text implicitly or explicitly promote? What is the role of the audience in shaping what's been written?

3. Marxist critics assume that all art is political.

4. Marxist critics judge a work's "ideology"--giving rise to such terms as "political correctness."

READER-RESPONSE CRITICISM

1. This type of criticism attempts to describe the internal workings of the reader's mental processes. it recognizes reading as a creative act, a creative process.

2. No text is self-contained, independent of a reader's interpretive design.

3. The plurality of readings possible are all explored. Critics study how different readers see the same text differently, and how religious, cultural, and social values affect readings.

4. Instead of focusing only on the values embedded in the text, this type of criticism studies the values embedded in the reader. Intersections between the two are explored.

DECONSTRUCTIVE CRITICISM

1. Deconstructive critics believe that language doesn't accurately reflect reality because it's an unstable medium; literary texts therefore have no stable meaning.

2. Deconstructive criticism resembles formalist criticism in its close attention to the text, its close analysis of individual words and images. There the similarity ends, because their aims are in fact opposite. Whereas formalist criticism is interested in "aesthetic wholes" or constructs, deconstructionists aim to demonstrate irreconcilable positions--they destruct (or deconstruct)--by proving the instability of language, its inability to express anything definite.