West Chester University

Fall 2002

West Chester University

Spring 2002

Fall 2001





Course Information
  WRT 120 Syllabus
  Lit 165 Syllabus
  About the Instructor

Notes for Effective Writing I
  Understanding the 'Rhetorical Situation'
  Writing Descriptively
  What Makes a Good Story?
  Building a Thesis
  Notes on 'Purpose'
  Strategies for Writing Introductions
  Strategies for Writing Conclusions
  Assignment #5: Argument
  Understanding Rational Argument

Notes for Introduction to Literature
  Fundamental Questions About Literature
  Critical Approaches to Literature
  Approaching Literature
  Critical Thinking and Reading Literature
  Notes on Four Short Stories
  The Genesis of the Short Story
  Defining the Short Story
  The Art of the Short Story
  A Vocabulary for Fiction and Beyond
  Notes on Nathaniel Hawthorne
  Responding to 'The Birthmark'
  A Guided Reading of 'Bartleby the Scrivener'
  Bartleby--Questions for Analysis
  A Cultural Context for 'Bartleby the Scrivener'
  Notes on Innovative Fiction
  Study Guide for Fiction Exam
  Billy Collins - 'Introduction to Poetry'
  A Catalogue of Poems for Study
  Approaching a Definition of Poetry?
  Reading Poetry
  The Craft of Poetry: Imagery
  Readings from 'The United States of Poetry'
  The Craft of Poetry: Sound
  The Craft of Poetry: Structure
  Lines of Continuity
  Study Guide for Poetry Exam
  The Birth of Drama
  On Tragic Character
  Stepping Through 'Oedipus the King'
  Analyzing 'Oedipus the King'
  The Relevance 'Oedipus'Today
  Study Guide for the Drama Exam

Announcements and Assignments
  WRT 120 Announcements
  WRT 120 Assignments
  LIT 165 Announcements
  Lit 165 Assignments


Go Exploring
  Weblog for WRT 120
  Weblog for LIT 165
  Writing Assistance on the Web

Join an Online Forum
  WRT 120 Composition Forum
  LIT 165 Introduction to Literature Forum

~~ Strategies for Writing an Effective Conclusion ~~


  • Does it bring the discussion to a logical close?
  • Does it strategically engage readers and make the material presented seem more memorable?


  • Use a transitional phrase which summarizes the main points or restates the thesis of your essay. For example: "As we have seen, poverty can create the kind of frustration, despair, desperation, and drug use that contributes to crime; therefore, working to alleviate poverty may be one of the most effective ways to prevent crime." This is called a "summary statement." Avoid the cliché phrases, "In summary," or "In closing," or "In conclusion," etc. These work better in speeches; in writing they come across as wooden and trite.
  • Use any of the strategies you used in your introduction to help you get the reader's attention and motivate him/her to keep thinking about your topic.
  • Create a satisfying sense of closure by referring back in some creative way to your introductory anecdote or scenario. Resume and then end the story, so to speak.
  • Draw a conclusion! (That is, present the generalized idea that logically follows from your discussion. You're attempting to clarify consequences, results, or implications.)
  • Elaborate on a vision of the future that logically follows from your discussion.
  • Call for action. Invite your readers to undertake specific actions which seem necessary according to your discussion.






Questions? Contact me.

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